Newspapers Established in Iowa Prior to the Civil War
Adams county - Howard county
Counties: I-M * P-W
This database lists known Iowa newspapers that were established before the Civil War, and includes brief historical information of each paper either to its discontinuance, or to 1927. The name of each paper is given, the place and date of establishment, its politics if any, the name of the editor or publisher, changes in the name of the paper, etc. Most all of the papers were weekly publications, and unless otherwise stated, are considered such.
Source: Annals of Iowa, Vol VXI, No. 3, January 1928, by David C. Mott
Transcribed for Iowa Old Press by Sharyl Ferrall, January 2015
- Adams County -
- Corning Sentinel, 1858 or 1859. Established the winter of 1858-59 by D. N. Smith with L. Ragnet as editor. It contained a column devoted to Montgomery County interests, as that county had no paper. We have been unable to find how long the paper ran, but apparently only a year or two.
- Allamakee County -
- Lansing Intelligencer, 1852-1860. Free Soil. Established November 23, 1852, by Horace H. Houghton, but soon sold to W. H. Sumner. In 1853 the paper was sold to H. R. Chatterton. The name was changed about this time to:
Lansing Mirror. The paper was suspended in 1860.
- Waukon Journal, 1857-1859. Free Soil. Established spring of 1857 by Frank Belfoy. He soon disposed of it to Frank Pease, who changed its name to the Waukon Herald and its politics to Democratic. It was discontinued in 1859.
- Waukon Transcript, 1859. Established in 1859 by Thomas H. McElroy. Its career seems to have been brief.
- North Iowa Journal, Waukon, 1860-1862. Republican. Established in May, 1860, by E. L. Babbitt and W. H. Merrill. Goodwin & Calkins became owners in 1861 and they disposed of it to Charles B. Cole in 1862, who discontinued the paper and removed the material to Lansing.
- Appanoose County -
Appanoose Chieftain, Centerville, 1856-1864. Established in May, 1856, by Fairbrother Bros. In about November, 1856, they turned the plant over to Al and George Binckley who made the paper Democratic. In 1858 they sold to W. P. Gill and J. T. Place, who were assisted by Livingston G. Parker as editorial writer. In January, 1863, G. N. Udell became owner. In 1864 It was sold to David L. Strickler who discontinued it, but merged the material in the Loyal Citizen, which he had established a few months before.
- Audubon County -
- Audubon County Pioneer, Audubon City, 1860-1861. Democratic. Established in December, 1860, by John C. Brown and J. J. Van Houghton. In January, 1861, it was discontinued and material removed to Lewis, Cass County. The principal purpose of its existence was to publish the delinquent tax list of the county.
- Benton County -
- Vinton Eagle, 1855-1926. Independent. Established January 10, 1855, by Frederick Lyman and Stanley C. Foster. In January, 1856, John C. Traer acquired Foster's interest and the paper became Republican. In February, 1856, Lyman disposed of his interest to W. W. Hanford, who became editor. In August Traer withdrew and the firm became Hanford & Lyman, but they soon sold to Stoughton & Dysart. In June, 1857, Stoughton sold to Thomas Drummond, who became editor. Hanford again returned, taking Dysart's interest. Drummond entered the Union Army in 1861, and Hanford was sole owner most of the time until January, 1871, when J. W. Rich obtained an interest. In 1876 Bernard Murphy purchased Hanford's interest, and in 1886 he became sole owner and editor, remaining such until 1913 when his son, E. A. Murphy, became a partner, and on Bernard Murphy's death in 1918, advanced to sole owner and editor. It was suspended in 1926.
- Blackhawk County -
- Cedar Falls Banner, 1854-1858. Independent. Established July 11, 1854, by William H. McClure and Dr. Meredith with A. F. Brown as editor. In October Meredith sold to S. H. Packard, who became editor. Hill & Ball became the owners in a short time, and they were succeeded in August, 1868, by William H. Hartman. In November George D. Ingersoll became a partner, but in December, 1858, they discontinued it and removed the material to Waterloo.
- Iowa State Register and Waterloo Herald, Waterloo, 1855-1859. Independent. Established December 16, 1855, by William Haddock. In 1859 it was discontinued and the material removed to Waverly.
- Waterloo Courier, 1859-1927+. Republican. Established January 18, 1859, by William H. Hartman and George D. Ingersoll. In September, 1860, Ingersoll retired and in November, 1864, J. W. Logan became half owner. In April, 1871, Charles Aldrich and M. C. Woodruff purchased the plant, but Mr. Hartman was not entirely disassociated from the paper, and in October of the same year purchased Aldrich's part. In February, 1874, A. J. Fell purchased Woodruff's share, the firm becoming Felt & Hartman. In April, 1875, Hartman became sole owner. In December, 1890, the daily issue began, and the same year a son, John C. Hartman, became a partner. In 1891 the W. H. Hartman Company was formed and took over the property. On the death of William H. Hartman in 1895, John C. succeeded to the editorship and management. In 1914 the Waterloo Reporter was taken over and consolidated with the Courier.
- Cedar Falls Gazette, 1860-1916. Republican. Established March 16, 1860, by Henry A. and George D. Perkins.In 1866 they sold to S. B. Goodenow who in 1867 disposed of it to C. W. Snyder and A. C. Holt. In 1868 Holt sold his share to E. A. Snyder. In 1869 the Snyders sold to George K. Shaw and L. D. Tracy, but later in the same year E. A. Snyder and L. S. Merchant became owners. W. H. Hurd obtained Merchant's interest within a few years and the firm became Snyder & Hurd. In 1903 they sold to J. F. Carson and A. L. Sebille. About 1910 J. B. Borresen and Rasmussen became owners and the paper changed to Democratic. J. G. Packard obtained an interest in about 1915, and the paper was discontinued in about 1916.
- Boone County -
- Boone County News, Boonesboro, 1856-1862. Republican. Established in July, 1856, by Lute C. Sanders. A Mr. Capron became his partner, and in 1860 J. F. Alexander succeeded to the ownership. In 1862 it was discontinued.
- Boone County Democrat, Boonesboro, 1857-1859. Democratic. Established in 1857 by N. Y. Dennison. It was discontinued in about two years.
- Boone County Herald, Boonesboro, 1860-1864. Democratic. Established in 1860 by Cornelius Beal. The proprietorship soon went to J. H. Upton and a little later to C. L. and H. M. Lucas. It seems the paper was suspended previous to February, 1865.
- Bremer County -
- Bremer County Herald, Janesville, 1855-1856. Established in 1855 by Phineas V. Swan. It ran only a short time when it was suspended, but was revived in November, 1856, by D. H. Daniels, but was suspended a few weeks thereafter.
- Waverly Republican, 1856-1927+. Independent. Established March 5, 1856, by Heman A. Miles. In November, 1856, C. T. Smeed obtained an interest and became editor and the paper was announced as Republican. In April, 1857, Miles sold his share to James O. Stewart and the firm became Smeed & Stewart. In June, 1861, Smeed sold his interest to J. K. L. Maynard and Louis Case and Maynard became editor. On December 31, 1861 the plant was consumed by fire, but on April 26, 1862, Maynard, as editor and proprietor, revived it, changing the name to:
Bremer County Phoenix. In October, 1864, H. L. Halbert became part owner, but he later withdrew. In 1866 James O. Stewart and Ezra C. Moulton became the owners, the latter the editor, and the name was changed back to:
Waverly Republican. In 1868 Van E. Butler and C. F Mallahan succeeded to the ownership. In November, 1869, Daniel Fichthorn became editor and owner. In 1873 C. F. Chase obtained an interest, and in 1874 became sole owner, but in September of that year he sold to W. H. Tyrrell. In October Tyrrell sold a half interest to William V. Lucas, the firm becoming Lucas & Tyrrell. In January, 1876, Lucas sold his interest to James Fletcher and the firm became Fletcher & Tyrrell. In about 1885 Fletcher withdrew and Tyrrell remained editor and publisher until January, 1915, when the paper was taken over by the Waverly Independent, becoming the Independent-Republican, J. F. Grawe, editor and publisher.
- Bremer County Argus, Waverly, 1860-1861. Democratic. Established in 1860 by William Pattee. It suspended in about a year.
- Buchanan County -
- Independence Civilian, 1855-1927+. Democratic. Established May 17, 1855, by B. F. Parker and James Hilleary. In 1856 they sold to S. S. Allen and S. J. W. Tabor, the latter becoming editor. Near the end of that year Tabor relinquished his interest to G. W. Barnhart and J. S. Cornwell. In 1859 Cornelius Hedges became sole owner with O. H. P. Roszell as editor. In 1864 the paper came into the ownership of G. W. and W. Barnhart, who changed the name to:
Independence Conservative. In 1872 W. Barnhart became sole owner. Sometime in the eighties Lewis W. Goen became editor and part owner and later sole owner. From 1896 to 1903 S. Miller and Warren F. Miller owned a half interest. In 1903 Goen again became editor and owner, but Warren F. Miller became editor and owner in March, 1914.
- Quasqueton Guardian, 1856-1866. Republican. Established in 1856 by Jacob Rich and ? Jordan. In 1858 they removed it to Independence where it became the:
Independence Guardian. Jordan entered the Union Army and in May, 1864, they sold the paper to S. B. Goodnow. In 1866 he sold it to J. L. Loomis who merged it into the Independence Bulletin.
- American Eagle, Independence, 1859-1865. Republican. Established in 1859 by D. P. Daniels. In 1861 the name was changed to:
Rising Sun and it became a spiritualistic organ. It was discontinued in 1865.
- Butler County -
- Butler Transcript, Clarksville, 1858-1860. Republican. Established in 1858 by Palmer & James. In 1860 it was suspended and the material removed to Winterset.
- Butler County Jeffersonian, Butler Center, Established in August, 1860, by William Haddock. In October, 1861, it was purchased by Martin Bailey who changed the name to:
Stars and Stripes. In 1863 Bailey entered the Union Army and the paper was suspended.
- Cedar County -
- Cedar County Tipton Times and Cedar County Conservative, 1850-1851. Whig. Established April, 1850, by William H. Tuthill and John P. Cook. The printing was done in Davenport. Dr. Richard Hall's name was used as editor, although he was absent in California and knew nothing of it. The paper was discontinued in a year.
- Cedar County News Letter, Rochester, 1852-1853. Established September 13, 1852, by Nelson C. swank It was discontinued in one year and the material removed to Tipton.
- Cedar County Advertiser, Tipton, 1853-1927+. Independent. Established November 12, 1853, by Charles Swetland with Wells Spicer and H.C. Piatt, editors. In March, 1854, Spicer and Piatt became owners, and the following July Spicer became sole owner and editor. About December, 1855, the name was changed to:
Tipton Advertiser. In the winter of 1856-1857 Samuel Dewell became a partner with Spicer, but withdrew in April, 1857. About this date the paper became Republican In September, 1857. Daniels and N. C. and H. P. Moffett became owners, W. Daniels, editor. In 1864 E. W. Clark and L. M. Mulford became owners, Daniels remaining editor, until February, 1866, when he withdrew and William P. Wolf followed him. In March, 1867, Charles L. Longley succeeded to the editorship, purchasing Clark's interest. In January, 1878, Mulford's interest was sold to W. T. Peet In a few years Longley became sole owner. John M. Rider obtained an interest January 1, 1888, Longley remaining part owner and editor until in October, 1890, when he retired and A. G. Brande became editor with Rider & Brande as publishers. In July, 1891, the Advertiser Printing Co. succeeded to the ownership with William R Boyd editor. In November, 1893, David C. Mott became editor, and became publisher in January, 1894. He sold to Sherman Yates in July, 1897. In about 1902 H. R. Ripley became a partner. In July, 1919, J. and F. J. Chamberlain succeeded to Ripley's interest, Yates remaining editor. In January, 1926, the Chamberlains became sole owners and editors with A. W. Jackson as associate editor.
- Cerro Gordo County -
- Cerro Gordo Press, Mason City, 1858-60. Independent. Established in 1858 by Datus E. Coon. In 1860 he discontinued it and removed the material to Ellington, Hancock County.
- Chickasaw County -
- Chickasaw County Republican, Jacksonville, 1857-1859. Republican. Established in May, 1857, by Isaac Watson. In December of that year it passed into the hands of a stock company, the Chickasaw County Republican Association. About a year later the paper was sold to L. J. Young who removed the material to New Hampton.
- Cedar Valley News, Bradford, 1857-1859. Neutral. Established in May, 1857, by A. J. Felt. He soon sold to Bushnell, and he to D. A. Babcock who represented a stock company. The company sold to G. M. Reynolds. We have failed to find the date of its suspension, but it seems to have been in about 1859.
- New Hampton Courier, 1860-1916. Republican. Established January 16, 1860, by L. J. Young and W. E. Beach. Subsequently they sold to G. M. Reynolds. On his death in 1878 the paper passed to W. R. Edwards and J. R. Carleton. In October, 1882, Edwards sold to C. F. Geer, and the firm became Carleton & Geer. About 1885 the paper came into the ownership and editorship of R. H. Fairbairn, and so remained during the rest of its history, except that for a short time about 1890 H. H. Wright was editor, although Fairbairn was publisher, a few years in the late 1890's when Crawford had a partnership, and a short time in the 1900's when Opdycke had a partnership. In October, 1903, the R. H. Fairbairn Co. was formed which remained in control until the paper's suspension in about 1916.
- Clarke County -
- Osceola Courier, 1859-1927+. Republican. Established July 30, 1859, by Pike & Oldham. In 1862 J. H. Caverly purchased it and on January 1, 1863, changed the name to:
Union Sentinel. In 1867 J. B. Dague and J. C. Stockton became the owners and editors, and soon after changed the name to:
Clarke County Sentinel, and a few years later to Osceola Sentinel. Stockton sold to Milo A. Thompson and he to R. A. Dague, the firm becoming Dague Bros. In 1872 they sold to Hunter Bros., they selling to J. J. Steadman. In 1874 S. M. Leach obtained an interest. Steadman retired in favor of R. A. Dague and the firm became Leach & Dague. The latter sold to B. L. Harding and the firm became S. M. Leach & Co. In 1881 Leach retired. Pierce & Lucas had an interest a while, but in 1885 Henry Stivers became editor and sole owner. Agnew & White were editors and publishers in 1890, but in 1891 Mary Osmond and F. L. Guches became owners, with the former editor. Soon, however, Guches became sole owner and editor. In March, 1905, he sold to H. D. Copeland and J. L. Long, the latter, editor and manager. In May, 1911, Copeland's name disappeared as part owner, and in February, 1912, the Sentinel Publishing Co. became owner with F. M. Abbott as editor.
- Clayton County -
- Clayton County Herald, Garnavillo, 1853-1858. Neutral. Established January 28, 1853, by Henry S. Granger. In 1854 he sold to A. W. Drips and in May, 1856, the paper was removed to Guttenberg. In November, 1856, John McBride became partner. The paper suspended in February, 1858.
- Elkader Tribune, 1856-1857. We have failed to learn the exact date of this paper's establishment or discontinuance, or the editor's name. Its purpose was to aid Elkader in a county seat fight. It appears to have commenced early in 1856 and ended in 1857.
- North Iowa Times, McGregor, 1856-1927+. Democratic. Established October 10, 1856, by F. W. D. Merrell and A. P. Richardson, the latter the editor. Merrell retired in two weeks. In April, 1858, C. C. Fuller became associate editor, but withdrew seven months later. Andy J. Felt was associate editor for a few months in 1860. In April, 1861, George W. Tenney became a partner and the paper was made independent politically. The following August Richardson retired and John H. Andrick with Mr. Tenney continued the paper as independent until Tenney retired in August, 1863, and Richardson returned and the paper again became Democratic. Richardson continued as editor until his death in December, 1870. He was succeeded as editor by his partner, J. H. Andrick, with George H. Otis as editorial assistant. In 1891 Dymond & Studebaker were editors, followed by T. H. Studebaker, and he, in 1396, by O. G. Wall. In 1897 Anton Huebsch and ? Hellbug acquired the paper and about two years later Huebsch became sole editor and publisher, and has continued to be with two brief exceptions, one in the early nineties when Wallis was a partner, and the other in 1906-07 when Eva B. Jordan was owner.
- Clayton County Journal, Guttenberg, 1858-1888. Republican. Established May 6, 1858, by Willard F. Howard. A few weeks later Alpheus Scott became proprietor but Howard remained editor. In about a year Howard again became proprietor. In August, 1859, he sold the paper to Joseph Eiboeck who removed the paper to Garnavillo, but soon thereafter to Elkader. Here it was published by Eiboeck until 1872, when he sold to Junius W. Shannon. For about a year commencing in August, 1874, James D. Ainsworth was a partner. In January, 1880, J. F. Thompson and C. B. MacDonald became the owners. In January, 1881, George W. Thomas obtained Thompson's interest. Andrew P. Bock soon thereafter purchased MacDonald's interest. Later in the eighties Donald D. Downan became owner. In October, 1887, A. M. Packard purchased It, but suspension occurred in about 1888.
- Mississippi Valley Register, Guttenberg, 1859-1861. Established May 19, 1859, by John McBride and A. F. Tipton, the latter the editor. He, however, withdrew in a few weeks and in January, 1860, Oliver D. Eno assumed the editorial duties, but withdrew at the end of the year. McBride resumed as editor until its suspension in May, 1861.
- McGregor Press, 1859-1869. Republican. Established in August, 1859, by George and S. S. Haislett with Orlando McCraney editor. In March, 1860, R. Tompkins became editor, and in July of the same year R. Tompkins and B. Truax became owners. In October, 1861, they sold to H. Belfoy. In December, 1861, Willis Drummond purchased it, changing the name to:
Pocket City News. Late in 1862 Drummond joined the Union Army, selling to T. J. Gilmore and W. W. Williams. In August, 1863, they sold to George W. Tenney, who in turn sold to Gilmore in October, 1864. Tompkins again became editor, but in April, 1866, Drummond again became owner. About two years later it was sold to Tompkins & Gilmore, and later to Douglas Leffingwell and was suspended about 1869.
- Clinton County -
- Clinton Mirror, Lyons, 1854-1922. Whig. Established May 19, 1854, by Cornelius and William Teal. The latter sold his interest to Daniel W. Ellis in May, 1855. A few months later Ellis retired and Teal continued alone until during 1856 Thomas A. Stone became part owner. This year the paper became Republican. In April, 1858, Teal sold to J. H. Hawes and in February, 1859, Stone sold to Theron R. Beers. In October, 1861, Hawes was succeeded by William D. Eaton and the name was changed to:
Lyons Mirror. After Beers's death in 1888 Eaton conducted the paper as editor and sole owner until September, 1922, when he suspended the publication, the paper's name being the Clinton Mirror, after 1897.
- Lyons Advocate, 1855-1927+. Democratic Established in 1855 by A. P. Durlin. In April, 1873, he sold to M. V. B. Philips and J. C. Hopkins who in May of the same year changed the name to:
Clinton County Advertiser. The same year Hopkins assumed control. E. W. Conable had an interest for a while. In 1888 L. E. Fay purchased the plant, and in June, 1888, sold it to his son, Lewis E. Fay who, in June, 1886, sold an interest to his brother, C. A. Fay, and they changed the paper to a daily. About 1901 the name was changed to:
Clinton Advertiser. About 1914 the Fay Bros. sold to the Advertiser Printing Co., Woodworth Clum, president, soon after which T. V. Murphy was made editor.
- DeWitt Clintonian, 1855-1859. Republican. Established in December, 1855, by O. C Bates and J. McCormick, the former the editor. In 1859 P. C. Wright served as editor during the political campaign. The paper suspended about the end of that year.
- Clinton Herald, 1856-1927+. Republican. Established December 18, 1856, by Charles E. Leonard. H. B. Horton became associated with him as Horton & Leonard. In 1863 Leonard withdrew and John McLeish became owner, but in November, 1863, it was sold to H. McAllister and Hugh Leslie. In January, 1867, Thomas J. Flourney came in with a third interest. In March, 1868, L. P. Allen purchased Flourney's interest, and later in the same year McAllister & Allen became the owners. In the fall of 1869 H. S. Hyatt bought McAllister's share, and soon thereafter Hyatt became sole owner. In June, 1870, the daily edition was established. In April, 1873, Josiah Russell purchased the plant, and in November, 1875, sold it to Waldo M. Potter. In 1881 Frank W. Mahin and W. C. Kegel became owners with the former the editor, and in August of that year the Clinton Herald Company was incorporated, since which it has remained the publisher, with F. W. Mahin as editor until 1897, when he was succeeded by David Brant. He was followed by A. C. Dailey in 1901, he by L. P. McClarren in 1907, he by W. R. Ashford in 1912, he by Irving W. Brant in 1916, he by L. M. Mickelsen in 1920, and he by W. C. Eastland.
- DeWitt Standard, 1858-1862. Republican. Established in December, 1858, by O. C. Bates and D. McNeil. In 1861 it was edited by a Mr. Stewart, who was followed by James S. Patterson, but in July, 1862, Patterson entered the Union Army and the paper suspended.
- Clinton County Journal, DeWitt, 1860. Democratic. Established in 1860 by Lawrence & McDonnell, with R. S. Lawrence editor. It only lasted a few months.
- Clinton County Democrat, DeWitt, 1860. Democratic. Established in 1860 by C. P. Cotter. It was short lived.
- Wide Awake, DeWitt, 1860. Republican. Established in 1860 by P. C. Wright and O. C. Bates, ran during the presidential campaign and then suspended.
- Crawford County -
- Boyer Valley Record, Denison, 1860-1861. Republican. Established in 1860 by J. W. Denison. It was discontinued in about eighteen months.
- Dallas County -
- Ship of State, Adel, 1856-1857. Democratic. Established in 1856 by Rippy & Reed. In 1857 it passed into the hands of a stock company and came out under the name of:
Prairie Flower, edited by William Henry Dodge. It became neutral in politics and was suspended within the next few months.
- Dallas County Union, Adel, 1860-1862. Republican. Established during the summer of 1860 by E. W. Fuller. It was discontinued in the fall of 1862 when Fuller entered the Union Army.
- Davis County -
- Western Gazette, Bloomfield, 1854-1856. Democratic. Established May 13, 1854, by George W. Johnson. In the second week of publication I. Kister was made a partner. In July following James Pollard acquired Johnson's interest and the firm became Kister & Pollard, and in September Pollard became sole owner. In October the firm became Pollard & Dickerhoff. In July, 1855, A. J. Dickerhoff became editor and proprietor, and C. P. Ober, printer, and the name was changed to:
Western Radiator, and it announced itself as "Independent and exclusive in politics." Late in 1855 or early in 1856 Harry Ober became the editor and proprietor and changed the name to:
Ober's True Flag. It seems to have been discontinued late in 1856.
- Democratic Weekly Union, Bloomfield, 1856. Democratic. Established in 1856 by James Bowen It was short lived.
- Ward's Own, Bloomfield, 1857-1858. Republican. Established in April, 1857, by W. G. Ward. In September, 1858, he sold to Hosea B. Horn who changed the name to:
Davis County Index. Its existence was brief.
- Democratic Clarion, Bloomfield, 1858-1864. Democratic Established in 1858 by A. P. Bentley. In the spring of 1861 he sold it to William G. Ward. It was suspended in 1864.
- Decatur County -
- Leon Pioneer, 1855-1872. Democratic. Established in the fall of 1855 by P. H. and George Bickley. They sold to Joe Parsons, and he to Sam Caster. The next proprietor was John Finley who changed the name to:
Democratic Reporter. Jackson & Howard finally succeeded to the ownership and in 1866 Detrick & Penniwell became the publishers. A Mr. Garrett bought Penniwell's interest, and the whole was sold to G. N. Udell. Frazier & Jackson were the next owners and they restored the name of:
Leon Pioneer. In 1870 they sold to Ed D. Pittman, who in 1872 disposed of the paper to Shinn Bros. and they suspended it and removed the material to Hutchinson, Kansas.
- Commoner, Decatur City, 1859-1861. Established in 1859 by F. A. C. Foreman and discontinued in 1861.
- Delaware County -
- Delhi Argus, 1853-1864. Established in 1853 by Datus E. Coon. In 1854 be sold to G. W. Field. In 1856 Charles F. Hobbs became proprietor. In 1858 the name was changed to:
Delhi Democrat. Following Hobbs, C. L. Hayes became owner, then Hayes & Corbett, then L. S. Ashbaugh, and he was followed by James Wright. J. L. McCreery purchased an interest and the name was changed to:
Delaware County Journal. Ashbaugh disposed of his interest to James L. Noble, after which McCreery became sole owner. In January, 1864, it was suspended and the material removed to Dubuque.
- Observer, Nottingham, 1859. Established the spring of 1859 by Ed. Stanton and suspended the following fall.
- Iowa News, Delhi, 1860-1861. Established in 1860 by Charles L. Hayes. It was discontinued In about one year and the material removed to Anamosa.
- Des Moines County -
- Territorial Gazette and Burlington Advertiser, Burlington, 1837-1927+. Democratic. Established in 1837 by James Clarke. In 1838 James Clarke & Co. became publishers, with Cyrus L. Jacobs, editor. In the fall of 1839 John H. McKenny acquired an interest. In 1842 Bernhart Henn and James M. Morgan became the owners, the latter the editor. In 1845 Clarke and Tizzard succeeded to ownership, but soon thereafter Clarke relinquished to a Mr. Thurston, who sold his interest in 1847 to Dr. Gates, who in 1848 sold to Clarke. In 1846 the name of the paper was changed to:
Iowa State Gazette. On Clarke's death in July, 1850, a Mr. Child succeeded him as editor. In 1851 Tizzard & Woodward became owners with Dr. Harvey, editor. In July, 1855, the paper was sold to William Thompson who associated David Sheward with him, and they began a daily issue. In 1860 Mr. Taylor became owner, and in 1862 Todd & Bentley acquired control, Todd being editor, and the name was changed to:
Gazette and Argus. In 1866 H. R. Whipple bought Todd's interest but in a few months relinquished to Bentley. In 1867 Richard Barret and Charles I. Barker became owners, but in the same year Barker acquired sole ownership and in June changed the name to:
Gazette. In 1874 Charles H. Playter, W. R. Finch and W. W. Blake obtained ownership and organized the Gazette Printing Company, and later the name was changed to the Gazette Company. Louis Melius was editor in 1875, but was succeeded by W. W. Blake in 1876. In 1887 Thomas Stivers and Henry Stivers became the controlling owners, but in 1888 Thomas Stivers took full control and was editor until his death in September, 1913, when he was succeeded by George A. Stivers.
- Iowa Patriot, Burlington, 1839-1927+. Whig. Established June 6, 1839, by James G. Edwards. In September following the name was changed to:
Hawk-Eye and Iowa Patriot. In June, 1843, the name was changed to:
Burlington Hawk-Eye. In December, 1844, Fitz Henry Warren became associate editor with Mr. Edwards. In July, 1845, J. M. Broadwell purchased an interest and the publishers became Edwards & Broadwell. In June, 1861, Lacon D. Stockton and Johnson Pierson became the owners with the former as editor. Stockton soon retired, Pierson succeeding as sole owner and editor. He was succeeded by Clark Dunham and John L. Brown, the former being editor. In July, 1855, they purchased the Burlington Telegraph and consolidated the two papers as:
Hawk-Eye and Telegraph with a daily edition. In March, 1856, Brown retired and Dunham became sole owner and editor and the paper was announced as Republican. In 1857 the name again became:
Burlington Hawk-Eye. In 1864 Edwards & Beardsley acquired ownership, with the latter, editor. In 1875 the Hawk-Eye Publishing Company took over the paper, with Frank Hatton editor. Robert J. Burdette was editor in 1876, and was followed by John L. Waite and later, Tracy Garrett.
- Burlington Telegraph, 1850-1855. Whig. Established June 11, 1850, by Morgan & McKenney, James M. Morgan, editor. Tri-weekly, and daily after June, 1851. In 1855 it was sold to and absorbed by the Hawk-Eye.
- Volksblatt, Burlington, 1852-1920. Established in 1852 by ? Metz, with Adalbert Loeber as editor, who was succeeded by Henry Kompe. Dr. Scholer then became owner and editor. In 1853 H. C. Ohrt was editor, followed by F. Goll as proprietor and editor. Weber & Wolf purchased it in 1855 and changed the name to:
Freie Presse ? Mader, editor. In 1856 H. C. Ohrt again became editor. In 1860, ? Vanzelow became proprietor and editor, followed in 1861 by Daldorf & (Theodore) Guelich, with the latter editor. Up to this time the paper had been Democratic most of the time, but now became Republican and the name was changed to:
Iowa Tribune. In 1863 Guelich sold to his partner but remained editor until 1864 when he was succeeded in their order by M. Sangeloth, Conrad Greiner, and E. Poppe. Daldorf & Schilling owned the paper in 1868, and Dr. G. Schilling was editor. The Iowa Tribune Company took it over in 1871, but sold in 1875 to Paul Lange Company, L. Madder editor. In the seventies it again became Democratic. In 1877 ? Weinstein succeeded Madder. Theodore Guelich returned to the management. In 1899 the name was changed to:
Volksfreunt Tribune, published by the Volksfreund Publishing Co. with Carl Lohman editor. A daily edition was started then. The daily was suspended about 1916, and the weekly in 1920.
- Dubuque County -
- Dubuque Visitor, 1836-1842. Established May 11, 1836, by John King. William C. Jones and Andrew Keesecker assisted in editing. On June 3, 1837, the name was changed to:
Iowa News and W. W. Coriell, John King, and John B. Russell became owners. Late in 1838 John B. Russell and Edwin Reeves became the publishers and editors. It was suspended from March 7 to May 5, 1840, and then revived by W. W. Coriell and Edwin Reeves. From June 14, 1840, to May 29, 1841, it was again suspended, and in 1842 it was finally suspended and the material removed to Lancaster, Wisconsin.
- Dubuque Miners' Express, Dubuque,1841-1854. Democratic. Established August 1, 1841, by Lewis A. Thomas. In 1842 he sold to A. Keesecker and D. S. Wilson and in January, 1845, they sold to George Greene. In 1848 Harrison Holt and A. Keesecker became owners. A little later W. H. Merritt obtained an interest, but William Y. Lovell became sole owner in the same year. However, it soon reverted to Holt & Keesecker. A daily edition was started August 19, 1851, under William H. Merritt & Co. and at the same time J. D. Jennings became connected with the paper, as did E. Van Meter and A. Keesecker in June, 1853. October 27, 1854, the paper was sold to and absorbed by the Herald.
- Iowa Transcript, Dubuque, 1843-1845. Whig. Established in May, 1843, by H. H. Houghton. In April, 1844, it was purchased by Royal Cooper. W. W. Hamilton, Henry Wharton, and Orlando McCraney were in turn owners or part owners, but in September, 1845, the paper was suspended and the material removed to Rock Island, Illinois.
- Dubuque Tribune, 1847-1860. Whig. Established early in 1847 by A. P. Wood. In March, 1851, it began a daily edition, which after a year was discontinued, but resumed in 1854 under ownership of (W. A.) Adams & (A. W.) Hackley. In 1855 Hackley became sole owner and editor. In October, 1857, it acquired the Republican and merged the two papers. It suspended about 1860.
- Democratic Telegraph, Dubuque, 1848-1852. Whig. Established in 1848 by Orlando McCraney. W. W. Coriell edited it for a time, but it soon came under the sole management of McCraney. In 1852 it was absorbed by the Tribune and the material removed to Fairfield.
- Northwest Demokrat, Dubuque, 1849-1873. Democratic. (German). Established spring of 1849 by B. Haut, D. A. Mahony edited it in 1855. John Bittmann became owner and Dr. George Hillgaertner, editor, and the name was changed to:
Iowa Staats Zeitung shortly prior to 1856, and in 1856 the paper changed to Republican. Henry Richter edited it until the spring of 1861 when it suspended until 1862. At that time Gustav Grahl revived it. In 1864 Adolph Schell became owner, followed by ? Pingel, he by William Meyer, and he by Arthur Schaeffer. It suspended in May, 1873, and the material was shipped to Lansing.
- Dubuque Herald, 1851-1927+. Democratic. Established April 19, 1851, by Harrison H. Holt, D. A. Mahoney, W. A. Adams and A. A. White. The following July 4, they began the daily edition. In same year White died and F. J. Stanton took his place in the firm. Soon Mahoney and J. B. Dorr became the owners. October 27, 1854, the Miner's Express and the Herald were consolidated and became the:
Express and Herald with Merritt, Mahoney & Dorr, publishers, and W. H. Merritt and D. A. Mahoney, editors. In August, 1855, D. A. Mahoney retired and J. B. Dorr became editor with J B. Dorr & Co. publishers. January 1, 1860, the old name, the:
Dubuque Herald, was restored. In May, 1860, D. A. Mahoney became editor and owner, and Andrew Keesecker was admitted as a partner. In July, 1860, J. B. Dorr again joined the editorial force, but withdrew in November, and James Brown and John Hodnett became partners of Mahoney. In 1862 Stilson Hutchins took Brown's place in the firm and assisted in editing. In the spring of 1864 the paper was sold to Patrick Robb, M. M. Ham and F. M. Ziebach. In January, 1865, M. M. Ham and D. D. W. Carver became owners, the former being editor. In 1901 the Telegraph was combined with it as the:
Telegraph-Herald with R. Louis Murphy editor. S. A. Monger, James H. Lowry, W.E. Wendt, and F. W. Woodward followed in succession. April 9, 1927, the Times-Journal was taken over and the two papers consolidated as the:
Telegraph-Herald and Times-Journal and the political policy announced as independent.
- Dubuque Observer, 1854-1856. Whig and Knownothing. Established in February, 1854, by C.I. Chapline & Co. A daily. Dr. Robert I. Thomas was editor in 1854 but retired in April, 1855, and Thomas, Stradling & Co. were announced as proprietors. We have been unable to find the date of its discontinuance, but it evidently was previous to August, 1857.
- Dubuque Republican, 1855-1857. Republican. Established November 26, 1856, as a daily and weekly by C. C. Flint as editor and proprietor. January 27, 1857, the paper temporarily suspended, but resumed the following June 6, with A. P. Wood editor and publisher, although Flint announced he still retained a connection with it. On October 20, 1857, it was sold to the Tribune and its business was merged with that paper.
- National Demokrat, Dubuque, 1856-1927+. Democratic (German). Established in August, 1856, by an association with Frederick A. Gniffke, editor. Gniffke soon became the owner as well as editor. It issued a daily edition from the spring of 1857 for about a year and then discontinued the daily. There was no change in the editorship until in 1916 when Henry B. Gniffke succeeded to the position. Since 1922 it has been independent politically.
- Dubuque Northwest, 1856-1861. Democratic. Established as a daily in August, 1856, by H. D. LaCassitt with M. B. Mulkern editor. In February, 1857, John Hodgdon assumed editorial charge. In July of that year H. H. Heath and J. Sheridan were the editors and publishers. In August, 1857, Sheridan's name was dropped from the firm name. The paper was suspended May 27, 1858, and resumed in June, 1859, under H. H. Heath, editor, and P. M. Guthrie, publisher. Its final suspension occurred some time previous to 1862.
- Dubuque Times, 1857-1927. Republican. Established as a daily June 15, 1857, by a stock company with Dr. George G. Lyon, editor and Jesse Clement, associate editor. In 1858 the paper suspended for a time, but late in that year it resumed under Frank W. Palmer, E. W. Upham, and C. A. Gilmore. In 1861 Palmer retired. In June, 1862, G. T. Stewart became owner arid editor. In April, 1864, he sold to Charles Aldrich and W. S. Peterson. In 1867 M. S. Barnes and Philip Ryan became owners. In September, 1870, Jacob Rich bought Barnes' interest and became editor. In March, 1874, M. C. Woodruff purchased the Ryan interest. In October, 1875, H. A. Perkins acquired Rich's interest. In October, 1877, Perkins retired and the Times Company took over the paper with Woodruff as editor. Subsequent editors were John Blanchard, George G. Perry, and Joseph S. Morgan. In September, 1906, it took over the Journal and became the:
Times-Journal. In 1915 John P. Walsh became editor, succeeded by G. Edward Hancock, and he by W. J. Schaefle. April 2, 1927, it was taken over by and consolidated with the Telegraph-Herald.
- Dubuque Daily Ledger, 1858. Established in 1858 by Flaven & Co. A daily. Its life was apparently brief.
- Mercury, Dyersville, 1859. Established by F. J. Stanton in 1859. We have failed to find anything further of this paper.
- Dubuque Morning Sun, 1859. Established in 1859. We have failed to find further of this paper.
- Fayette County -
- Fayette County Pioneer, West Union, 1853-1864. Democratic. Established October 21, 1853, by John Gharky. Except some brief suspensions it was continued until in 1864 when Gharky discontinued it and removed the material, except the press, to Memphis, Missouri.
- West Union Free Press, 1856-1857. Republican. Established September 9, 1856, by Frank A. Badger and C. O. Myers. Badger soon withdrew and in May, 1857, Meyers sold the material to parties in Fayette, and they removed it there.
- Fayette Journal, 1857-1858. Established late in 1857 by C. O. Myers, the editor being J. E. Cooke. E. C. Byam, ? Norton, ? Robertson, L. Templeton, ? Halbert, and D. Vines, each one at a time tried their hand at editing or publishing the paper, but it finally suspended under Meyers' charge in 1858.
- North Iowa Observer, Fayette, 1860-1861. Established in the spring of 1860 by D. Harmes, who sold three weeks later to Rev. William Bush with J. W. Shannon, editor. Soon thereafter it was sold to William B. Lakin and James McDonald and was suspended the fall of 1861.
- Floyd County -
- Republican Intelligencer, St. Charles, 1856-1927+. Independent. Established July 81, 1856, by Azro B. F. Hildreth and D. D. W. Carver. Although the salutatory states the paper will be independent, it also announces the antipathy of the editors to slavery, and the paper soon became Republican. October 8, 1857, the headline and date lines showed "St. Charles" changed to "St. Charles City." August 1, 1859, Carver relinquished his interest to Hildreth. September 26, 1861, "St." was dropped from the head and date lines. June 2, 1864, the name was changed to:
Charles City Intelligencer. October 1, 1870, the paper was sold to Dyke & Rowell. In February, 1871, Rowell sold to W. H. Leonard. In October, 1872, Leonard sold to C. L. Dyke and the firm became Dyke Brothers. In May, 1874, they sold to Owens Brothers. In 1875 C. A. Slocum became owner and in March, 1876, Dyke Brothers again purchased it. By 1893 E. B. Dyke and A. L. Olds were owners, with the former as editor. Olds sold to C. L. Dyke in December, 1897, and the firm became (H. N.) Dyke & (C. L.) Dyke. H. B. Nies & Sons purchased it in January, 1901, but in May of the same year sold to Sam G. Sloane. In August, 1904, Charles W. Rhinesmith became part owner, Sloane remaining editor, and in March, 1906, Rhinesmith became editor with C. H. Rhinesmith &; Co., publishers, shortly afterward, the Intelligencer Printing Company. In July, 1906, they established a daily edition, but about 1917 the daily was taken over by L. H. Henry & Sons and combined with the Press as the Daily Press and Intelligencer, but the semi-weekly edition of the Intelligencer was continued by Rhinesmith as before.
- Franklin County -
- Franklin Record, Hampton, 1859-1863. Independent. Established March 28, 1859, by Stephen M. Jones and M. S. Bowman. It was discontinued in 1863.
- Fremont County -
- Fremont County Journal, Sidney, 1854-1855. Established during the winter of 1853-54 by a stock company with William S. McEwen as editor. In 1855 it was discontinued and the press removed to Nebraska City, Nebraska.
- Fremont County Herald, Sidney, 1857-1859. Neutral. Established in 1857 by C. E. Shoemaker. In 1859 it was discontinued and the material removed to Clarinda.
- Fremont County Journal, Sidney, 1860-1861. Democratic. Established in 1860 by J. W. Pattison. It was discontinued in one year and the material removed to Nebraska City, Nebraska.
- Greene County -
- Jefferson Star, 1859-1864. Established in 1859 or 1860 by V. B. Crooks. In 1863 it was changed to the:
Jefferson Record, published by Wynkoop & Upton, and later by Wynkoop & McBride. It suspended in 1864.
- Guthrie County -
- Western Pioneer, Guthrie Center, 1856. Democratic. Established January 15, 1856, by William Tracy. It was discontinued in November of the same year, and the material removed to Panora.
- Guthrie Sentinel, Panora, 1856-1857. Democratic. Established January 25, 1856, by John E. Parish. In November of the same year B. F. Dilley purchased a half interest, but in 1857 they discontinued the paper and removed the material to Desoto, Nebraska.
- Guthrie County Gazette, Guthrie Center, 1859-1862. Republican. Established in 1859 by J. B. Besack. In 1861 S. H. Springer became the owner and editor. In 1862 he removed it to Panora, but soon sold it to Besack who removed it to Poweshiek County.
- Hamilton County -
- Hamilton Freeman, Webster City, 1857-1927+. Republican. Established June 26, 1857, by Charles Aldrich. In September, 1862, Mr. Aldrich locked up the office and entered the Union Army. In 1864 the paper was revived by V. A. Ballou. In 1866 J. D. Hunter became the owner, and in 1874 it was purchased by T. E. McCracken, but the ownership returned to Mr. Hunter in 1875. In 1894 the paper began a daily edition. In 1899 the daily became the:
Freeman-Tribune with D. L. and W. F. Hunter controlling it and in 1918 it became the:
Freeman-Journal with W. F. Hunter editor, the Freeman continuing as a weekly.
- Hancock County -
- Hancock Sentinel, Ellington, 1860-1863. Established in 1860 by D. E. Coon. The paper had varying fortunes of success, but was suspended in 1863.
- Hardin County -
- Hardin County Sentinel, Eldora, 1856-1865. Independent. Established March 22, 1856, by local citizens with O. M. Holcomb as publisher and J. D. Thompson as editor. In 1857 James Speers became editor and publisher, and the paper announced it was Republican. In 1858 J. D. Hunter purchased it and in 1863 sold to M. C. Woodruff. In November, 1865, the paper was removed to Iowa Falls.
- Harrison County -
- Harrison County Flag, Calhoun, 1858. Established in 1858 by Isaac Parish. Suspended at end of three weeks and the material removed to Magnolia.
- Magnolia Republican, 1859-1862. Republican. Established January 4, 1859, by George R. Brainard. During 1859 O. V. Brainard was associate editor. Later, Sylvanus Ellis became part owner and conducted the paper. In 1862 it was leased to Judge Henry Ford who edited it for a time, and soon thereafter it was discontinued.
- Henry County -
Iowa Freeman, Mount Pleasant, 1849-1852. Antislavery. Established in 1849 by D. M. Kelsey. In 1850 Samuel Luke Howe became the editor and the name was changed to the:
Iowa True Democrat. It was suspended late in 1852.
Mount Pleasant Observer, 1856-1914. Republican. Established in 1856 by G. G. Galloway. After Galloway the paper was successively owned by Elliott & Mahaffey, D. S. Elliott, and Elliott & Edwards. The latter firm changed the name to:
Home Journal. G. W. Edwards was the next owner, and he was followed by Edwards & Snyder, T. A. Bereman, Richard Hatton, and Frank Hatton. Hatton changed the name to:
Mount Pleasant Journal. About 1874 G. W. McAdam and J. W. Palm became owners and editors. Partnerships followed Palm & Kopp, McAdam, Kopp & Payne, McAdam, Huston & Huston. In March, 1898, McAdam sold his interest to Ed. L. Roth, but he retired the following September, and Nathan and Milo B. Huston became the sole owners under the firm name of Huston Bros. In April, 1903, Nathan Huston sold his interest to Frank R. Winfield, and about 1910 E. J. Richards became sole owner. In 1914 the paper was taken over and merged into the News, as the:
News-Journal, Charles S. Rogers, editor and publisher. In 1919 the word "Journal" was dropped from the name. The News, however, continued until October, 1927, when it was taken over and merged into the Mount Pleasant Free Press.
- Howard County -
- Howard County Sentinel, New Oregon, 1858-1859. Independent. Established February 18, 1858, by a local company with J. Howard Field as editor. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1859 and the paper was not resumed.
- North Iowa Gazette, Vernon Springs, 1858. Democratic. Established March 26, 1858, by Harrison & Peek. It suspended during the year.
- Northern Light, Howard Center, 1858-1859. Established in 1858 by George W. Haislet. It was discontinued in about one year.
- New Oregon Plain Dealer, 1859-1927+. Democratic. Established in 1859 by Henry Lick with W. R. Mead as editor. Twelve weeks later Lick sold to F. J. Mead and I. Woods, and the latter disposed of his Interest to F. J. Mead in February, 1860. Soon after this F. J. Mead was absent in the western gold fields about four years, during which time W. R. Mead and others were the publishers, but on his return he joined with his brother, W. R. Mead, as a partner. The paper was removed to Cresco in May, 1867, and it became the:
Cresco Plain Dealer. In 1904 F. D. Mead, a son of F. J. Mead, became a partner, the. father and son purchasing W. R. Mead's interest and publishing the paper under the name of the Mead Publishing Company. W. R. Mead, who had been editor since the paper was established, died in 1905, and since then F. D. Mead has been editor. F. J. Mead's death occurred in 1922, since which time F. D. Mead and his sons are the publishers under the name of the Mead Publishing Company.
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